Monday, May 25, 2020

American Sign Language And Numerical Stories - 1118 Words

A-Z stories in American Sign Language and numerical stories as well were introduced around the 1940’s (Bauman). Gilbert Eastman stated that A-Z and numerical stories were most likely created as early as the 1900’s at the Ohio School for the Deaf (Bauman). However, with the advanced technology of the 20th century American Sign Language numerical and A-Z stories may be cherished and videorecorded for future generations (American Sign Language Literature). What are A-Z and numerical stories? A-Z stories are stories created in American Sign Language that begin with the letter A and continue in succession throughout the alphabet to Z. Numerical stories are similar in that it begins with 1 and continues in some sort of numerical sequence.†¦show more content†¦Although, there rules that apply to both forms of storytelling. The first rule is that the story incorporates paralinguistic mechanisms such as pausing, space, etc. (Bauman). The second rule is that the story fl ows naturally, and clearly makes sense. It is not allowed that a storyteller has a story that is choppy or jumpy to the point that the viewer does not understand. One of the most important rules is that the storyteller succeeds in continuing the story in alphabetical, or numerical, order. Similarly, if one tells the story in the reverse order, one cannot skip a letter, or number (Bauman). Lastly, for alphabetical stories there are allowable deviations and those that are not allowed. For example, many storytellers interchange â€Å"2† hand shapes such as â€Å"N,† â€Å"H,† â€Å"U,† and â€Å"V.† This deviation, along with the interchange of the â€Å"3† hand shapes â€Å"M† and â€Å"W,† are allowable deviations (Bauman). However, the usage of the â€Å"time out† sign as â€Å"T† in A-Z stories is an example of a deviation that is not allowed (Bauman). These vital rules to alphabetical and numerical storytelling aid in contributing to the overall purpose. A-Z and numerical stories have multiple purposes, however, the main purpose is that of a source of entertainment (American Sign Language Literature). Similar to our American Sign Language class, classes throughout the world are assigned to create or research A-Z and numerical stories for school assignments. Although, they are enjoyable and a

Friday, May 15, 2020

Improving Competitive Foods Schools For Creating A Healthy...

Improving Competitive Foods in Schools to create a healthy school environment To: School Districts and School Administrators Seeing Spots: Addressing Competitive Foods Competitive foods are foods that are available in schools to purchase through venues such as a la carte lines, vending machines, snack bars, school stores and other fundraises.1 It has been estimated that nearly 30-50% of all school students consume their total calories at school.2 School lunch and breakfast programs meet the requirements for the federal nutrition standards and U.S. department of Agriculture’s Dietary Guidelines for American. However, foods that are available through competitive venues do not meet these requirements.3 National data shows that foods and snacks that are sold outside the school meal programs are high in fats, calories, sugar, salts and provide low nutritional value. In addition, many sugar sweetened beverages, sports drinks, high fat milks and high calorie fruit drink are sold at schools.4 Available foods and beverages at schools have an influence on children’s weight, and in fact health problems can arise if the available foods and bevera ges are not healthy choices. Scope of the Problem In the Unites States, more than 23 million children and adults are obese and overweight.5 Several studies have linked the rise in weight and obesity with consumption of excess calories from competitive foods.6 A Study conducted by Rampersaud et al.( 2005) suggested that competitive foods areShow MoreRelatedThe On The Healthy Hunger Free Kids Act1554 Words   |  7 Pageschildhood obesity as well as alternative policy. Reinforcing NSLP in every school in our nation to adhere to dietary guidelines set forth by USDA. In addition, focusing on education and raising awareness among children and their parents even if our nation is on financial crisis especially budgetary and spending issues. Improving child nutrition is everyone responsibility including our late president, Obama. President Obama signed Healthy Hungry-Free Kids Act in 2010. This Act along with U.S. AgricultureRead MoreKfc And Mcdonalds Case Study1406 Words   |  6 PagesTask: 1. My two chosen Fast Food Companies that will be researched is: -Macdonald’s AND -KFC 2. Background: MacDonald’s: â€Å"It all began in the United States of America in 1955, in a small butcher shop in Maywood, Illinois. There, their founder, Ray Kroc, sealed the deal with McDonald’s first beef supplier with a handshake and received his first burger patties on credit. Since then, McDonald’s has opened restaurants all over the world, never forgetting their commitment to Quality,Read MoreSchools Must Combat Obesity with Proper Nutrition Essay examples1856 Words   |  8 Pagestime they were in elementary school, students have heard about the importance of nutrition. Although they have been taught the value of a balanced, healthy diet, students continue to ignore the recommendations given to them and even complain about the steps that the school administration takes to improve the nutritional quality of the foods within the cafeteria. While the students may not realize it, obesity in children and teenagers has been steadily increasing, and schools nationwide are taking actionRead Mor eExploring The Aspects Of Development That Are My Priorities For Following School Year?2082 Words   |  9 Pagessuch as Piaget and Vygotsky. This essay will be exploring the aspects of development that are my priorities for Adelina for the following school year, what could be done to support Adelina’ development in these aspects of development and what the school could do to support Adelina and myself. 1.What aspects of development are the priorities for following school year? Adelina consistently contributes to cooperative group activities and respects the rights and possessions of others, has consistentlyRead MoreSUBWAY Marketing Plan5476 Words   |  22 Pagesï » ¿ Table of Contents 1.0 Executive Summary†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦2 1.1 Introduction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..2 2.0 Situation Analysis†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦...3 2.1 Competitive Analysis†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦...3 2.2 SWOT Analysis†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦4-6 2.3 P.E.S.T. Analysis†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦7. 2.4 Five Forces Analysis †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..8 3.0 Marketing Strategy†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦9. 3.1 Mission†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..10. 3.2 Core Values and Philosophy†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..10 3.3 MarketingRead MoreC Leveled : Stakeholder Matching Application Essay1603 Words   |  7 Pagesand its relevant environment in a tangible, worthwhile, and measurable way. In this paper, we will discuss C-Leveled, an organization that advises startups and new businesses in the Pittsburgh area that are interested in making an impact while creating a sustainable business model. By applying the principles of stakeholder matching, we will make a business case for various stakeholders to support C-Leveled’s efforts to generate business opportunities while addressing local food sustainability. SpecificallyRead MoreObesity : Declining Human Heath1873 Words   |  8 PagesObesity: Declining human Heath Abstract In our modern world with increasingly cheap, high calorie food prepared foods that are high in things like salt, sugars or fat, combined with our increasingly sedentary lifestyles, increasing urbanization and changing modes of transportation, it is no wonder that obesity has rapidly increased in the last few decades, around the world. Introduction Obesity is a global public health problem that has become an epidemic killing 17 million people each year worldwideRead MoreCase Study on Unilever’s Path to Growth Strategy: Is It Working?2447 Words   |  10 Pageseveryone they work with, the communities they touch, and the environment on which they have an impact. This is their road to sustainable, profitable growth, creating long-term value for their shareholders, their people, and their business partners. B. Corporate Governance: The corporate person were- †¢ Niall FitzGerald, he was the Co-Chairman †¢ Antony Burgmants was another Co-Chairman of Unilever; he was in charge of food. C. Top Management: Read MoreCase Study on Unilever’s Path to Growth Strategy: Is It Working?2462 Words   |  10 Pageseveryone they work with, the communities they touch, and the environment on which they have an impact. This is their road to sustainable, profitable growth, creating long-term value for their shareholders, their people, and their business partners. B. Corporate Governance: The corporate person were- †¢ Niall FitzGerald, he was the Co-Chairman †¢ Antony Burgmants was another Co-Chairman of Unilever; he was in charge of food. C. Top Management: TheRead MoreObesity : Declining Human Heath2562 Words   |  11 Pageslack of access to healthy foods and the genetic modification of food increases the chances and risks of becoming obese. Major dietary changes in this system include a higher energy density diet with greater roles for high-calorie artificial substances that are sold to the public. Food advertising ads are major marketing tools that are prevalent around the world, increasing the availability of ready-made, non-time consuming, high energy food. Our environment does not support healthy lifestyle habits

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Personally Identifiable Information Essay - 913 Words

Information gathering, through networking, social media, and both on and offline storage have made it easier to collect information about an individual than ever before, with many concerns having arisen over the years about privacy and the ability to protect that privacy. As debates over personally identifiable information continue, one cornerstone remains a constant, ethics. Ethics are defined as â€Å"the standard by which human actions can be judged right and wrong (Online, 2012)†, but even that can be debated when discussed within the realm of information technology. Have you ever been to an internet shopping site and â€Å"trusted† the secure connection? Essentially, you are entrusting an inanimate system developed by an individual or group†¦show more content†¦The first questions to ask when it comes to e-mail and websites at work is, â€Å"Am I being watched?† The answer is most likely yes. Employers have begun to watch their employeeâ€℠¢s activities with greater detail over the years. In 2001, posted an article titled, Is your PC watching you? Find out!, which looked into this further. In this article â€Å"A study by the Privacy Foundation claims employers are monitoring the Internet and e-mail use of 14 million employees. (Articles.CNN, 2001)† While it can be assumed that number has grown over the last decade, it can also be said with certainty that measures have been put in place to ensure information transmitted via business internet connections have increased. The U.S. government, for example, has set up content filters and points of encryption to safeguard against system penetrations and intrusions. Although these measures are not practical for home use, limiting the information you supply to through the internet will help. One topic of contention that does not seem to have a resolution, however, is the subject of electronic medical records. The utilization of electronic medical records has been highly ethically debated. According the Journal of Information Systems Education, â€Å"Building knowledge and skills in biometrics creates a mutual understanding between IS professionals and health practitioners. (Cellucci, 2011)† Although the thought process is sound, theShow MoreRelatedThe Impact Of Personally Identifiable Information1649 Words   |  7 Pagesconcerned with how their Personally Identifiable Information (PII) is being used online. PII, as described in US privacy law and information security, is information that can be used on its own or with other information to identify, contact, or locate a single person, or to identify an individual in context. Please read our privacy policy carefully to get a clear understanding of how we collect, use, protect or otherwise handle your Personally Identifiable Information in accordance with our websiteRead MorePersonally Identifiable Information Essay1071 Words   |  5 PagesUNDERSTANDING OUR RESPONSIBILITY REGARDING PERSONALLY IDENTIFIABLE INFORMATION IFSM 201 JULY 22, 2012 Abstract Anyone who uses computer technology today accepts the fact that their Personally Identifiable Information (PII) may or could be transmitted, collected, and used to benefit the one who receives that information. It is our responsibility to know what PII transmissions are being made available for public use over the web. Understanding all the aspects of PII and the approaches that areRead MorePersonally Identifiable Information Essay1216 Words   |  5 Pages(collectively, Services) (Authorized Customers). Personally Identifiable Information refers to any information that identifies or can be used to identify, contact, or locate the person to whom such information pertains, including, but not limited to, name, address, phone number, fax number, email address, financial profiles, social security number, and credit card information. Personally Identifiable Information does not include information that is collected anonymously (that is, without identificationRead MorePersonally Identifiable Information (Pii) and Ethics: Use of Cookies687 Words   |  3 PagesPersonally Identifiable Information (PII) and Ethics: Use of Cookies Cookie Trails In today’s era of technology, many people are concerned about internet privacy. Most concerns are usually sparked by misinformation. One piece of technology that is most misunderstood is the cookie and its uses. Many people believe that cookies are programs that can transfer viruses onto their computers. This is absolutely false. Cookies are typically harmless. Cookies are little text files left on yourRead MoreData Breaches Case Study704 Words   |  3 Pagesinitially announced that hackers had gained access through a third-party HVAC vendor to its point-of-sale (POS) payment card readers, and had collected about 40 million credit and debit card numbers. In January 2014the company reported that personally identifiable information (PII) of 70 million of its customers had been compromised. That included full names, addresses, email addresses and telephone numbers. The final estimate is that the breach affected as many as 110 million customers. The company recentlyRead MoreAnnotated Bibliography On The Security1950 Words   |  8 Pagesproduce the same output at the tempo of their active duty counterparts. The stressors placed on both the commissioned officers, to include warrant officer s and their noncommissioned officers creates the perfect environment for the mishandling of information. The lack of computer resources compounds the issues associated with the daily leadership requirements primarily due to the inability to provide resources to every leader. Moreover, these issues lead leaders to being to complete work from personalRead MorePrivacy Of Your Personal Information741 Words   |  3 Pagesabout the privacy of your personal information and your privacy is important to us. We hope that reading our Privacy Policy will help you visualize and understand that how do we manage your information when you visit our website. At â€Å"The Technology Times† we values the privacy of our users/visitors and takes every actionable step to safeguard the information we collect. The following is the detailed information and explanation on what type of personal information we receive when you visit www.techinismRead MorePrivacy Policy : An Internet Property Of Educhinalink Co.1345 Words   |  6 Pageslearn about our information collection and sharing practices. SICAS put the security of our users personally identifiable information high on our priority list. This Privacy Policy applies to personally identifiable information collected by Qingdao EduChinaLink Co., Ltd on its Web site at We also outsource information to colleges, universities, nonprofits, and other organizations (hereinafter in this policy as our clients). When our clients collect information about you throughRead MoreThe Right To Confidentiality Is Guaranteed Partly By The1105 Words   |  5 Pagesconduct workers and their employers should meet with regards the handling of information. There is also Caldecott stand which govern the sharing of information based on the Data Protection Act. 2. Summarise the main points of legal requirements and codes of practice for handling information in health and social care. DATA PROTECTION ACT 1998 The data protection act sets out 8 principles governing the use of personal information – Fairly and lawfully Obtained only for one or more specified and lawfulRead MoreA Privacy Policy With Explanations1473 Words   |  6 Pagesfabric store in Edwards, Colorado. The website at educates visitors about their services and collects contact information for scheduling free estimates. A privacy policy on the Vail Trappings website serves three purposes: building trust with visitors, complying with applicable laws and minimizing liability. It tells visitors about what information Vail Trappings gathers from them and when, how they protect it, what cookies are used and how, third- party considerations, what

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Argumentive Essay free essay sample

I believe that a child should complete a parent’s life. On the other hand I don’t believe that it is biblically right for homosexual couples to be able to adopt a child and raise that child. In the bible God created man and woman for a purpose. This purpose was to be able to reproduce the population and for one man to be in love and with one woman. I do not believe that in a homosexuality house hold that a child would be raised properly and normally like most children are able to be raised. I feel putting children in that environment is suggesting that homosexuality is okay and it truly isn’t when in terms of the bible. This sin was so important to God that he directly approached the subject in the bible saying it is a sin and that a man should be with a woman and a woman should be with a man. We will write a custom essay sample on Argumentive Essay or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Being a huge supporter of the Christian faith because I am apart of that faith, I believe that being a homosexual is dishonorable and truly upsets God. On the other hand I am aware that not every heterosexual home in the world is a stable and a suitable home to raise a child in. In many homes in this world there are children that are beaten, raped, hungry, and also very poorly supported. In those terms and in those cases I do believe that it may be acceptable for a child that are in those conditions to be placed in a home where they will be loved and supported and be loved. I do also agree that a homosexual couple is very capable of loving and providing and taking care of a child. If the child is being beaten and unloved and raped and other extreme conditions I would be supportive and feel that it was okay for a child to be adopted into a homosexual home. I also feel that it is hard for the children that are being adopted to be able to accept what is going on and being able to know what is natural and taboo. Same-sex couples raising children must stand ready to prove to the world they are a family, just one that happens to have two mothers or two fathers. For example I would like to share this one homosexual couple’s tory. This constant burden of proof is especially difficult for families like the Muzingos, who live in a state that doesn’t allow them to establish legal ties to each other. Michelle Muzingo was in the delivery room when her wife, Katrina, gave birth to each of their three children, who are now 7, 4 and 1. She cut their umbilical cords and was the first to hold the children, who call her â€Å"mommy. † Yet because they live in Ohio, a state that does not allow gay couples to adopt, she is unable to make that title official. We are always scanning the circle around us to see what we need to put in place to protect ourselves,† said Katrina, 37. A report released earlier this week illustrates just how vulnerable these couples and their children are, both legally and financially. After all, 30 states do not have laws that allow same-sex parents to either adopt, while six states restrict them or impose outright bans. Even families who live in states that recognize their relationships can run into trouble if they travel or move. And if something were to happen to a parent who was unable to adopt or otherwise establish legal ties, the child might be denied certain federal benefits something that children of most heterosexual parents receive automatically. When having a child normally, with one man getting one woman that is married pregnant, it can be an extremely rocky road. Also I believe that not every home is perfect and there are many problems within each family. But I just think that too many complications can come from homosexual couples adopting a child.

Sunday, April 12, 2020

Swot Analysis And General Report On The New Jica Organisation Essay Example For Students

Swot Analysis And General Report On The New Jica Organisation Essay In this study more analysis about facets of New JICA administration has been clearly and in deep explored. The debut portion has covered about the Aim of this instance survey, the Background of JICA administration covering its development get downing where the administration was foremost found. The usage of SWOT analysis as a tool of measuring the public presentation of the administration has been in big covered where besides the recommendations have been pointed out to get by with the administration ‘s internal failing and its external menaces Besides this study has covered the country of the administration construction, importance of administration construction, advantages and disadvantages of each type of construction and the administration construction used by the New JICA. We will write a custom essay on Swot Analysis And General Report On The New Jica Organisation specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Besides this study has explained the construct of direction alteration, the significance of alteration, rule of alteration, how to impact the direction of alteration in the administration. The last portion cover the decision and recommendation of instance survey. Chapter ONE 1.0 Introduction 1.1 THE AIM OF THE REPORT The purpose of this study is to find whether the aims of NEW JICA have been archived peculiarly in Tanzania. The action programs for Tanzania development every bit good the precise apprehension of the development demands of Tanzania through supervising of state office and the close support of JICA Regional Strategy unit for Africa ( RSA ) . The â€Å" Creation and publicity of sustained and stable growing of economic system and poorness decrease by support of development policy ( MKUKUTA that means The national scheme for growing and decrease of poorness 2005-2010 ) .New JICA aid Tanzania to advance productiveness and fight by back uping the development of agribusiness and substructure, good administration through fiscal direction systems and public administrative development. Besides JICA uses different assistance modes like loan, grants, proficient cooperation such as preparation and despatch of voluntaries to different country of field in order to file away its targeted aims JICA will hike the impact in the undermentioned attack. A more planned construction focal point on norm to long term development end More expected assistance working turn overing programs of campaigner undertakings for single development states Speeder undertaking preparation through preliminary study Aid tailored to existent demands synergism of assistance strategies 1.2 COMPANY BACKGROUND Japan International Cooperation Agency ( JICA ) is an administration which was established since August 1974 and undergoes some organizational reforms which lead to formation of Independence administrative Institution from the particular public establishment. All these was possible after the transition of the jurisprudence for partial amendment ( November 2006 ) from the Japan International Cooperation Agency jurisprudence. This influences the 1000s of ( Nipponese Overseas Cooperation Volunteers ) JOCV to volunteer in different activities around the universe. 1.3 JICA RESEARCH INSTITUTE JICA established the JICA Research Institute ( JICA-RI ) to better research map on development by pulling on its abundant field experience and to lend to research findings and taking audience on planetary development support. 1.4 NEW JICA Was officially launched on October 1, 2008 with combination/ integrating between the bing Nipponese International cooperation Agency and the abroad economic cooperation subdivision of the Bank for the cooperation ( JBIC ) The figure below illustrate the combination of different administration hence the preparation of NEW JICA Figure 1 1.5 JICA TANZANIA In Tanzani JICA was established since 1980 with basic aim of cooperation in assorted facets that aimed into back uping the self enterprises of Tanzania citizens in file awaying their societal and economic development vision 2020 and 2025 every bit good the Tanzania growing scheme and poorness decrease ( MKUKUTA-The national scheme for growing and decrease of poorness 2005-2010 ) JICA concentrated on â€Å" field orientated direction, human security and effectivity, efficiency and velocity as the mark of the organizational alteration. JICA besides has abroad offices in Africa, Asia, Latin America, Oceania, Middle East, and Europe. These abroad offices has facilitated smooth operation, therefore the authorization for determination devising have been moved to these offices with an purpose to guarantee the flexible response to the widely varied demands of developing states. Harmonizing to article of 30 old ages of JICA Tanzania office ( 1980-2010 ) there is some undertaking which was implemented as shown below Figure 2 Figure 3 The Africa office is located in Nairobi Kenya which was established since October 2009 and go the Regional scheme unit for Africa ( RSA ) with purpose to smoothen JICA operation in the part every bit good to guarantee the flexible response to the widely varied demands of developing states. This office has been given the authorization in order to beef up activities in undertaking preparation, monitoring and rating every bit good the assistance scheme in bomber Sahara office. 1.6 JICA OPERATING Scheme To set about the commixture of direction modes of backup, that is Technical cooperation ODA loan Grant assistance Such elements will supply inclusive support such as policy and institutional betterments, betterment of substructure, human resource development and capacity edifice Encouraging development association through exactly hold oning of demanding demands of developing states that spotlight on the field and advancing their ain ego aid attempt quickly and through a focal point on consequences. JICA has besides promoted the joint venture between public and private sectors so that they can lend to the experience, engineerings, resource of local authorities, non authorities administration and other histrions. Enhancing research and cognition splintering in through the usage of JICA Research Institute, NEW JICA will utilize the apprehension acquired in the field of work, constructing extended webs of academic from Japan and elsewhere around the universe. besides to take portion in a prima function in steering the most recent development tendencies, better research and cognition sharing capacities Vision â€Å" Inclusive development † represents an attack to development that stimulate single to be witting of the development affair they themselves face, take part in turn toing them, and addition from the fruits of such activities. The function of JICA is to offer the successfully endorsing on this procedure. â€Å" Dynamic development † refers to the organisation of ego reenforcing virtuous rhythm of mid to long term economic growing and poorness cutback in invariably switching environment of developing states where different issues go on at the same time and acquire embroiled each other. New JICA will offer originative, extremely successful support in the way of file awaying the aim Mission Addressing the planetary Agenda. The promotion of globalization brings positive effects, rushing up economic development and supplying single with new chances. Besides it has the negative side such as the issue of clime alteration, infective diseases, terrorist act and the rise of economic crises. New JICA will do full usage of experience and engineerings as it concert with international society to cover with the different globalization interconnected issues that the development states are confronting in comprehensive mode. Decrease of poorness through just growing JICA will assist to shrivel the poorness to the society through advancing employment chances, supplying instruction wellness attention to the society while JICA supply support for proviso of societal and economic substructure, capacity edifice, and flawlessness of policy as good the support in footings of human resource betterment. Bettering administration JICA play a really of import function to the stable economic development of developing states. However the undeveloped legal and juridical system and administrative variety meats symbolize obstructions to attempts and lessening poorness through economic growing. Archiving human security The promotion of globalization imposes many people in dangers like civil problem, catastrophes, poorness and other menaces. Human security helps to construct abilities to protect themselves against an mixture of menaces. New JICA present support long pillows societal and institutional ability to cover with menaces themselves. Bellow figure illustrate the vision, mission and scheme of New JICA Figure 4 SWOT ANALYISIS FOR NEW JICA STRENTH: Efficient and crystalline procedure- JICA overseeing and measure operations professionally and transparently and remain changeless committed to regenerating and streamlining administration by keeping high degree of answerability. Undertaking complex, hard issues flexibly with the field based approach- JICA accurately grasp the development needs on the land and design activities with their focal point on the field, they deal flexibly with complex, hard and knotted development issues Fostering expertness for supplying professional solution – JICA specialised in international cooperation, they perform international competitory work and utilizing expertness and cognition sharing capablenesss to rapidly and accurately address broad scope of development issues. Archiving synergisms of the merger- by smoothly uniting diverse and modes, we make usage of our synergisms by rushing up the old procedure, scaling them out in other parts communities. Failing Poor planning- which caused by unchanged assistance policy every bit good the biasness Lack of human security against menaces like civil war, terrorist act Lack of sustainable development due to escalation of struggle in assorted portion of Africa and Asia like Somalia, Darfur, Afghanistan Lack of integrated support substructure and human capacity development Opportunity ODA offer loan aid to developing states beyond a certain income by supplying low involvement long term and concessional fund JICA provide Grant Aid for counties which have low income degrees without the demand of refund ; grant can be used for retrieving indispensable substructure such as schools, H2O supply, infirmary, roads installations, wellness and medical attention. Dispatch of expertness and provisional of compulsory equipments and counsel JICA despatch voluntaries from ( JOCV ) grip undertaking via the JICA finance and betterment of instruction. JICA work together with NGO ‘S, local authorities, universities, and other interest holders .udf0ce16079eac41cbf60c3ad763aa1cd , .udf0ce16079eac41cbf60c3ad763aa1cd .postImageUrl , .udf0ce16079eac41cbf60c3ad763aa1cd .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .udf0ce16079eac41cbf60c3ad763aa1cd , .udf0ce16079eac41cbf60c3ad763aa1cd:hover , .udf0ce16079eac41cbf60c3ad763aa1cd:visited , .udf0ce16079eac41cbf60c3ad763aa1cd:active { border:0!important; } .udf0ce16079eac41cbf60c3ad763aa1cd .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .udf0ce16079eac41cbf60c3ad763aa1cd { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .udf0ce16079eac41cbf60c3ad763aa1cd:active , .udf0ce16079eac41cbf60c3ad763aa1cd:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .udf0ce16079eac41cbf60c3ad763aa1cd .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .udf0ce16079eac41cbf60c3ad763aa1cd .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .udf0ce16079eac41cbf60c3ad763aa1cd .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .udf0ce16079eac41cbf60c3ad763aa1cd .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .udf0ce16079eac41cbf60c3ad763aa1cd:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .udf0ce16079eac41cbf60c3ad763aa1cd .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .udf0ce16079eac41cbf60c3ad763aa1cd .udf0ce16079eac41cbf60c3ad763aa1cd-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .udf0ce16079eac41cbf60c3ad763aa1cd:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Sir Gawain And The Green Knight EssayJICA in instance of the occurrence of a big graduated table calamity, JICA dispatches Nipponese calamity alleviation squad in reaction from the authorities affected. illustration deliverance of lost people, support and medical direction Menace Worsening of foreign support which has been diminishing by 40 % in last few old ages. This give difficult planetary state of affairs including the Japan itself and it has become hard to turn round the tendency in simply fiscal footings. Constantly the aid from ODA ( Office Development Assistance ) continues to travel down. In coming decennary Africa will be one of the most affected parts by clime alteration. This is due to extended spread of poorness, drouth, imbalanced land allotment Some counties in Africa are likely to confront terrible H2O scarceness in the following three decennary. Misuse of fund and corruptness on fund allocated for undertakings. Chapter TWO 2.0 ORGANISATION STRUCTURE Harmonizing to Mullins ( 2005: 596 ) defined the administration construction as the form of relationships among places in the administration and among members of administration. Structure makes possible the application of the procedure of human direction and creates model of order and bid through which the activities of administration can be planned, organised, directed and controlled. The construction defines undertakings and duties, work functions and relationships, and channel of communicating. With the addition size of administration, there is greater demand for carefully designed and purposeful signifier of administration, besides continual reappraisal of construction to guarantee that it is the most appropriate signifier for the peculiar administration and in maintaining with its growing and development. 2.2 TYPES OF ORGANISATION STRUCTURE Harmonizing to Fontaine ( 2007 ) argued that Organisation construction is important constituent of the overall concern scheme, merely every bit of import as planning, taking and commanding an administration. Administration construction is the frame work for replying the undermentioned inquiries ; how do we organize occupations into section? â€Å" Who does what † and â€Å" who report to whom † in the concatenation of bid. Some administration see their administration chart as confidential, while other administration do non and make bold to post their administration chart on the populace accessible web site. The most common administration constructions are as follows: Functional construction Divisional construction Matrix construction Horizontal linked construction 2.3 Functional Structure: Is the manner administrations support themselves into a scope of section illustration productions, gross revenues, research and development and accounting section. Advantages of functional administration construction It digest the determination devising and give direction control in the disposal promote single profession way through presuming determination devising Functional construction inspire stableness and efficiency Disadvantages of functional administration construction It taking to bury sections struggle and hapless communicating Staff will hold a penchant to sort themselves with their section or subdivision but non with the administration. Communication and confederation between the section is difficult 2.4 DIVISIONAL STRUCTURE Divisional construction is non formulated on the grouping of people harmonizing to their accomplishment instead in puting them harmonizing to their similar abilities where they are required in the administration. Advantages of Divisional construction are Due to accountability, the reaction to client is first-class Divisional construction can ease to excite managerial accomplishments and executive accomplishments, since staff are concerned to all other maps Disadvantages of Divisional construction There is diminution of specialization as good the professional accomplishments Due to sections executing the same odd occupations within the disposal, there is excess of attempt and resources. 2.5 MATRIX STRUCTURE Matrix construction involves the combination of functional and divisional construction, but yet the matrix operation remains in its ain alone manner. The director of each undertaking does non hold ownership of employees at all. He is accountable to pull off his staff from their functional country in so that to supervise his undertaking from construct to completing point Advantages of matrix construction It is really well-organized particularly when resources are limited Undertaking can get down rapidly since there is no demand to use work force from outside Cross functional accomplishments to employees due to their fond regard in assorted undertakings Disadvantages of Matrix construction Employees turn out to be upset and puzzled with concatenation of bid ( who is the caput of section or undertaking director ) The undertaking director may use for the best undertaking support work force from administration as the consequences can be the root of competitions matrix construction is the most ambitious and nerve-racking than others 2.6 HORIZONTAL LINKED STRUCURE A horizontally linked construction groups people along the value of concatenation of procedure that green goods market, and serve the houses offering. 5.0 The figure below illustrate the horizontal administration construction Run Construct Plan 2.7 DIMENSION OF ORGANISATION STRUCTURE Harmonizing to Fontaine ( 2007 ) argued that â€Å" believe of any administration construction and visualize an administration chart in two dimensions. There is perpendicular dimension in which the administration is considered to be either a Tall or Flat construction and there is the Horizontal dimension in which an administration is considered to be either broad or Narrow The perpendicular dimension organizational construction The perpendicular dimension fundamentally depict who is in charge of who is in charge of whom and who is responsible for determination devising inside the administration. It is hierarchy of authorization and within it we find the span of control Broader span of control and fewer degrees of authorization consequences in a level hierarchal construction while the narrow span of control and more degree of authorization consequences in tall hierarchal construction 6.0 A ; 7 The figures below illustrate the Tall and Flat constructions. Tall Organisation construction has ( 5 ) five figure of degree while the span of control is ( 2 ) two. The above construction represents Tall STRUCTURE Flat administration construction has ( 6 ) degree of span Control, while the figure of degree is ( 3 ) three. The figure above represents Flat STRUCTURE 2.8 SPAN OF CONTROL: Harmonizing to Mullins ( 2007. 577, 5780 ) explains that the Span of control arises in line authorization and refers to the figure of subsidiaries who report straight to a director or supervisor. V.A. Graicuna developed a mathematical expression for the span control. The restriction of the figure of subsidiary who can expeditiously be supervised is based on the sum of the direct and transverse relationships. R= N ( 2n /n + n-1 ) Where â€Å" n † represent the figure of subsidiary, † R † is the figure of interrelatednesss. Factors that act uponing span of control Span of control can be affected by the undermentioned factors: The nature of administration, the complication of the work and the similitude of maps and the range of undertakings The sum of clip the director has accessible from other activities to utilize up with subsidiaries The handiness and preparation of low-level staff, the strength of their motive and committedness and the extent of way and counsel needed. The utility of coordination and the nature of communicating and control systems. The physical topographic point or geographical spread of subsidiaries The length of scalar concatenation – this implies that if the span of control is excessively broad will make the undermentioned jobs ; it will go non easy to administrate the subsidiary successfully and do farther emphasis to the director, they may be short of clip to transport out all activities decently, limited chances for encouragement and may take to slowness to take on alteration or the debut of new alteration or procedure. Besides if the span of control is excessively narrow may show the problem of coordination and uniformity in determination devising that obstruct effectual communicating across the administration. Narrow span of control additions disposal costs and may take to excess degree of authorization Need for a balanced construction The combination of span of control and concatenation of bid determines the overall pyramid form of the administration whether the hierarchal construction is level or tall 2.9 ORGANISATION STRUCTURE USED BY NEW JICA Figure 8 below represent administration chart of jica The New JICA operates its activities in a good selected construction which suits its alone scheme of operation and direction activities. The administration is considered to hold 14 span of control ( regional scheme unit for Africa ) ( RSA ) therefore the construction is Tall with Matrix administration construction. This is due to decentralisation attack which is applied, where some of determination devising are carried out by regional office ( RSA ) alternatively of caput office in Japan. The channel of communicating is extremely structured and is unfastened to let flow of information Advantage of matrix construction It is well-organized particularly when resources are limited The undertaking can be rapidly established because there are sufficient staffs Cross functional accomplishments to employees are encouraged They deal with legion undertakings Working with and larning from other professional with assortment of accomplishments Disadvantages of matrix construction It leads to confusion and letdown to employees due to near used that is concatenation of bid and order. It can take to conflict due to observation of deadline Recommendations Since the advantages of matrix administration construction exceeded the disadvantages, it is wise to maintain on usage this administration construction because it is more efficient than others. It is an environment in which the person excel Matrix combine functional construction and divisional construction, but at the terminal it operate like neither Chapter THREE 3.0 ORGANISATION CULTURE AND BEHAVIOUR Harmonizing to Cook, C et Al ( 1997, p 112 ) defined organisation civilization as the cardinal premise people portion about an organisation ‘s values, beliefs, norms, symbols, linguistic communication, rites and myths. All of the expressive elements that gives intending to organisation rank and are accepted as usher to behaviour. Organizational Behaviour ( OB ) is the acquisition and application of cognition in relation to how people, persons, and groups perform in organisations. It interprets people organisation personal businesss in footings of the full individual, full group, full organisation, and full societal system. Its purpose is to construct better relationships by accomplishing single aims, organisational aims, and public aims. .u24a3c3da131626f40cefd307a97013c9 , .u24a3c3da131626f40cefd307a97013c9 .postImageUrl , .u24a3c3da131626f40cefd307a97013c9 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u24a3c3da131626f40cefd307a97013c9 , .u24a3c3da131626f40cefd307a97013c9:hover , .u24a3c3da131626f40cefd307a97013c9:visited , .u24a3c3da131626f40cefd307a97013c9:active { border:0!important; } .u24a3c3da131626f40cefd307a97013c9 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u24a3c3da131626f40cefd307a97013c9 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u24a3c3da131626f40cefd307a97013c9:active , .u24a3c3da131626f40cefd307a97013c9:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u24a3c3da131626f40cefd307a97013c9 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u24a3c3da131626f40cefd307a97013c9 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u24a3c3da131626f40cefd307a97013c9 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u24a3c3da131626f40cefd307a97013c9 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u24a3c3da131626f40cefd307a97013c9:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u24a3c3da131626f40cefd307a97013c9 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u24a3c3da131626f40cefd307a97013c9 .u24a3c3da131626f40cefd307a97013c9-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u24a3c3da131626f40cefd307a97013c9:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: My Philosophical Approach to Counseling EssayThe followers are the JICA organisation civilization: Harmonizing to capacity development enchiridion for JICA staff ( 2004 ) urged that JICA staff, particularly those in the regional sections at the central office and at the field offices, have the of import function to play in guaranting that JICA ‘S programs/projects support spouse states capacity development procedure. Staff must hold a wide cognition and apprehension of the state context including the latest position of development and the way such as economic liberalization and administration reforms. JICA staff needs to hold the vision of JICA in cooperation in the capacity development procedure such as, when and how JICA can lend to the procedure. With such wide cognition and apprehension, the staff will be able to guarantee the relevancy and effectivity of JICA plans and undertakings through all its phases. JICA staff is responsible for measuring appropriate undertaking aims and attacks ( which attack is appropriate for each receiver, how big the graduated table should be, and when the cooperation should get down. ) JICA staff is responsible for measuring appropriate undertaking aims and attacks ( which attack is appropriate for each receiver, how big the graduated table should be, and when the cooperation should get down. ) Addressing the cosmopolitan docket of clime alteration, H2O, nutrient, energy, infective diseases and funding JICA fight to cut down poorness of an single all over the universe through inclusive and just growing. Networking – JICA has a web of 17 domestic offices and 96 abroad agency and has undertaken missions in about 150 states Attempts to back up the independency of persons with physical disablements by reenforcing message and gestural linguistic communication in partnership with physically disabled alumnas Motivate employees and communicating between superior and low-level staff. Chapter FOUR 4.0 MANAGEMENT OF CHANGE 4.1 What is Change Management? Change direction is a set of procedures engaged to do certain that of import alterations are implemented in a controlled and organized mode. One of the aims of alteration direction is the agreement of people and civilization with considered displacements in the administration, to get the better of resistance to alter in order to hike battle and the attainment of the administration ‘s end for successful alteration. Achieving sustainable alteration begins with evident considerate of the present state of affairs of the administration, followed by the executing of suited and targeted schemes. The Centre of alteration direction is on the consequence the alteration will make – the new activities that must be understood. Change processes on a regular basis relate to a undertaking and/or structural alteration. A wide alteration direction attack should demo the manner to the needed aims and bring forth a sense of ownership, ease 4.2 Leading and pull offing alteration The execution of any major alteration procedure frequently succeeds or fails because of the leading of that alteration process. Leadership engages people to do, set and run into the demands of the predictable hereafter. Management plays a critical portion in creative activity and do alterations go on, it motivate the ‘doing ‘ . Leadership encourages the alteration ; it is what energises the Black Marias and heads of staff and develop and construct ability to move in response to future alteration Leadership and direction are two distinguishable and complimentary systems of action. Each has its ain map and characteristic ( Kotter, 1999:51 ) .The tabular array below outlines some of the features indispensable to driving important alteration enterprises at JICA Directors Leaderships Implement the vision Plan, budget and organize the squad Maintain order and system Pull off the impact of alteration Measure day-to-day Control and job solve Contribute to squads Seek step-by-step betterment Make the vision Align people and animate them Create and construct procedures Create alteration proactively Keep the values seeable Collaborate Motivate and inspire Continue to dispute the position quo 4.3 Why is organizational alteration hard to carry through? Harmonizing to Mckinsey ( 2006 ) and Thomson ( 1998 ) argues that Peoples are afraid of the unknown, many think things are all right the manner they are and do n’t understand the demand of alteration. Recognizing the demand to alter and moving on it can be hard determination for leaders and director to do. Resistance is a natural defense mechanism mechanism for those losing something. The closer we are to something or person the greater the heartache or loss. The opposition can be due to loss of security, money, pride or satisfaction, friends, freedom, duty, good working conditions, position deficiency of regard, obnoxious mode, negative attitude, personal unfavorable judgment, non holding had input, bad timing, challenge to authorization or 2nd manus information. Change must absorb the people and must non be imposed upon the people. If the administration imposes new material on people there will be troubles due to engagement, engagement and unfastened, early and full communicating are the of import factors. Peoples and squad demand to be empowered to happen their ain solutions and responses with facilitation and support from directors and tolerance and compassion from the leaders and executive. 4.4 Change direction rules At all times involve and agree support from people within system ( system = environment, processes, civilization, relationships, behaviors, etc. , whether personal or organizational ) . Understand where you/the administration is at the minute. Understand where you want to be, when, why, and what the steps will be for holding got at that place. Plan development towards above No.iii in appropriate accomplishable mensurable phases. Communicate, involve, enable and facilitate engagement from people, as early and openly and every bit to the full as is possible. 4.5 John P Kotter ‘s ‘eight stairss to successful alteration ‘ John P Kotter ( b 1947 ) is a professor and taking mind and writer on organisational alteration direction at Harvard University. Kotter ‘s extremely regarded books ‘Leading Change ‘ ( 1995 ) and ‘The Heart of Change ‘ ( 2002 ) explain a supportive theoretical account for understanding and pull offing alteration. Each phase acknowledges a cardinal rule identified by Kotter associating to people ‘s response and attack to alter, in which people see, experience and so alteration. Kotter ‘s eight measure alteration theoretical account can be summarised as: Increase urgency – inspire people to travel, do aims existent and relevant. Construct the guiding squad – acquire the right people in topographic point with the right emotional committedness, and the right mix of accomplishments and degrees. Get the vision right – acquire the squad to set up a simple vision and scheme focal point on emotional and originative facets necessary to drive service and efficiency. Communicate for buy-in – Involve as many people as possible, pass on the necessities, merely, and to appeal and react to people ‘s demands. De-clutter communications – do engineering work for you instead than against. Empowers action – Remove obstructions, enable constructive feedback and tonss of support from leaders – wages and recognise advancement and accomplishments. Create short-run wins – Set purposes that are easy to accomplish – in bite-size balls. Manageable Numberss of enterprises. Finish current phases before get downing new 1s. Do n’t allow up – Foster and promote finding and continuity – ongoing alteration – encourage on-going advancement describing – high spot achieved and future mileposts. Make alteration stick – Reinforce the value of successful alteration via enlisting, publicity, and new alteration leaders. Weave alteration into civilization 4.6 JICA AND MANAGEMENT OF CHANGE JICA reforms was stared since October 2003, when was public announced as the independent administrative establishment. The reforms was intended specifically in organizational and operations for the intent of implementing assistance activities more successful and resourceful The integrating of the bing JICA and the abroad economic cooperation subdivision of the Japan Bank for international cooperation ( JBIC ) consequence into preparation of New JICA. The new JICA is headed by Mrs Sadako Ogata who was officially the caput of UN Refugees Agency ( UNHCR ) between 1991-2000 Formulation of new JICA increases the figure of its operation through constitution of 17 domestic offices and 96 abroad offices while the figure of undertakings increased up to 150 undertakings worldwide. The alterations has lead to the constitution of New JICA Research Institute that enhances research activities on development by pulling on its abundant field cognition and to lend to research consequence and taking duologue on international development support. The reforms of the JICA focal point on integrating of 3 strategies of Japan development aid Technical aid Concessionary loan extended by ( JBI ) for abroad economic cooperation operation Grant Aid with no duty for refund New JICA impact the alterations in the undermentioned mode To concentrate on medium and long term development through encouragement of public and private partnerships, pooling of resources every bit good the experience and engineerings. Predictable assistance ; operational † turn overing programs of current undertaking for a peculiar developing state. JICA play function of beef uping partnership with international administrations and other giver to widen the model for development aid. Speedier undertaking preparation: seamless designation through preparatory study JICA offer support in ways that finest match the phase of development in every receiver state, taking a long term position and present seamless support to guarantee sustainable growing into the hereafter. Aid tailored to existent need synergism of three ( 3 ) assistance strategies

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

To What Extent Will High Salary Modify Workers

To What Extent Will High Salary Modify Workers Introduction The greatest asset for any organization is its personnel; persons who are involved in the daily running of the organization. It is in this regard therefore that there has been great interest in ways of maintaining a good working force which has led to studies and great inventions in Human Resource Management (Abowd, Kramarz Margolis, 1999).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on To What Extent Will High Salary Modify Workers? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Central to the Human Resource initiatives is the intention to motivate workers since performance is increased with proper motivation of workers. There are many different intentions and things that motivate workers no wonder Human Resource Departments of any organization are usually obsessed with the focus on different theories that help them understand how to motivate their workforce (Abowd, Kramarz Margolis, 1999). One of these areas of motivation for wo rkers’ performance is the monetary reward they receive for their work; salaries. This paper takes a critical look at how far high salaries for workers works towards improving their performance, productivity, motivation and overall job-satisfaction with the view of quantifying the increment of salaries as an element of employee motivation. Research Question There are many authorities that have written a lot about this issue given its centrality in corporate organizational performance and this paper will draw insights from some of these authorities to help in answering the research question which is, ‘to what extent will high salaries improve workers’ productivity?’ Henry Grant (1913) is one such authority that has tackled the issue of employee motivation through salary increment in depth in his book, Work, Wages and Profits. In the book, Grant argues that financial reward is one sure way of ensuring accountability and hard work for employees without using f orceful means, threats and coercion (Gantt, 1913). The basic reason given for this surmise is that increased salaries for workers create a level of appreciation in the workers as they are better placed to cater for their daily needs and are even enabled to afford higher-profile lifestyle. This inclusion of material things in the workers’ lives is the one that motivates them into working harder with the assured hope of financial appreciation for their performance (Gantt, 1913). In further discussing this human resource management issue, theories of employee motivation will be used to help answer the research question. For this, two of the theories of employee motivation that will be used will help to explain the effect of financial motivation on people’s behavior at their workplace. These theories are:Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Theory of Hie rarchy of Needs by Abraham Maslow The Theory of Motivation-Hygiene by Fredrick Herzberg These theories seek to explain the effect of improved salary on employees’ behaviour and extrapolate that effect to their performance and overall output at their places of work. According to the Theory of Hierarchy of Needs, Maslow surmises that provision of the needs of employees and guarantee of their (needs’) continued provision is the greatest motivator as to why people work. This means that instances where salaries are increased, workers’ motivation is increased and this in turn increases their productivity (Black, McKinnish Sanders, 2003). In the same breathe, Herzberg argues through the Theory of Motivation-Hygiene that poorly paid workers show little (if any) interest in their work and rarely grow economically and the corollary of this usually is reluctance to perform reducing the general output of their productivity (Black, McKinnish Sanders, 2003). They are dissa tisfied, deprived, lack sense of belonging in their workplaces and can therefore not afford modern and improved life due to their financial status. Black et al (2003) point out in their work that if low skilled workers are awarded high salaries, they are likely to increase output out of the motivation they receive in the remuneration perks they are given. These increased salaries in turn enhance their status which brings them comfort further encouraging them to do even better and this propels them into better performance. This shows that in essence, there is no difference between them and the skilled ones because since out of the motivation they receive, they can just be as perfect at their work as anyone else (Herzberg, 1987). In an expansive country like Saudi Arabia where there is a lot of competition, salary increases is a great factor that maintains workers to a given place for a given time (Herzberg, 1987). In a snapshot, these two theories point to one thing: the central plac e taken by salaries and wages in determining workers’ motivation. What is observed from increment of workers’ salaries can best be described as having some element of domino effect in that the increment triggers something into operation that affects everyone from the workers themselves to the entire corporation and eventually the market and industry they are in. Increased salaries increase workers’ motivation which in turn causes them to work harder increasing their productivity/output and this in turn increases the business’ profitability. When corporations and organizations are making appreciable profits in their respective fields, the general performance of the economy of the industry is improved and this positively contributes towards improving the entire economy (Abowd, Kramarz Margolis, 1999).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on To What Extent Will High Salary Modify Workers? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A social approach to the research question has been well explained by Maslow (1943) when he asserts that the one basic reason that people work is to survive. When they start earning, they seek to create a niche and establish themselves by making new friends with whom they seek to further improve their lives. Everyone who starts working usually has expectations of growing to greater economic and financial freedom through their places of work and therefore well remunerated employees have better job satisfaction thereby becoming better performers which increases their output (Maslow, 1943). The most important objective for any organization is to have its personnel at their optimal performance at all times and this is the reason a lot of money is spent in instituting strategies that implement theories that motivate workers to be at the very best they can ever be in any organization (Abowd, Kramarz Margolis, 1999). This has forced the professional world to have w orkers educated and informed about their rights as workers and this has caused them to demand reasonable salaries that befit the work they do for their employers. This demand is not only restricted to remunerations but also permeates such non-economic areas of workers’ lives as proper working conditions and workers’ rights. Bringing all these things into workers’ expectations makes motivation a complicated phenomenon that is highly dependent on individuals. Each individual having unique things and areas of interest that motivate them, motivation is therefore thought to be worker-specific in many regards and therefore conceptualizing it is not such an easy thing. This notwithstanding, remuneration is one area of need that remains constant for every worker in whatever place of work and therefore whatever model or theory is used to study worker motivation, salary and wage remuneration is always a factor that motivates every worker (Abowd, Kramarz Margolis, 1999). Other things such as praise and recognition, job security, dignified treatment, opportunity for expansion among others can be considered supplemental to monetary need. This is because good salary payment is a factor from which all other factors are likely to emanate from thereby acting as the mother determinant of employee motivation.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion In conclusion, as regards the research question which is to what extent salary increment will increase employ performance, it can be strongly concluded that salary increase is among the core aspects of motivation that ensures workers’ increased performance and motivation. All other motivational strategies such as empowerment, opportunity creation, appraisals, and recognition among others stem from the remuneration benefits into such endeavours that give workers voice for recognition. It is therefore incumbent upon any organization to ensure that their salary and wage schemes are most favourable for their workforce to ensure optimal performance that translates into profitability for the organization. In this regard therefore, corroborated with the evidential discussion preceding, it is recommended that every employer accords salary and remuneration increment the attention it is due to ensure that their personnel are always performing at their best optimal level to e nsure maximal productivity and profitability. Reference List Abowd, J., M., Kramarz, F., Margolis, D., 1999. High Wage Workers and High Wage Firms, USA: Dept. of Labor Economics, Cornell University. Black, D., McKinnish, T., Sanders, S., 2003. ‘Does Availability of High-Wage for Low-Skilled Men Affect Welfare Expenditures?’ Harvard Business Review, 87, (9-10), pp. 1921-1942. Gantt, H., 1913. Work, Wages, and Profits: Their Influence on Cost of Living. USA: Dept. of Labor Economics, Cornell University. Herzberg, F., 1987. ‘One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees?’ Harvard Business Review, (e-jounal) 1 (5). Web.

Sunday, February 23, 2020

American history Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

American history - Essay Example This part of the study will discuss about several successes that were achieved by the government of the United States of America under the articles of the confederation. Under this article of the confederation, the colonists of America fought against the soldiers of Great Britain with their full strength and achieved independence. The government of the United States of America succeeded to maintain a strong unity by keeping 13 different states together. In addition to this, these states stayed together for a longer period of time in order to realize the importance of unity. The Land Ordinance of the 1785 was the most effective territory expansion plan introduced by the government of the United States of America under the articles of confederation. The government of the United States of America raised huge money by selling the lands. It helped government to source and allocate required fund for several planned projects and development programs. In addition to this, this sourcing of fu nds or capital helped the government of the United States of America to repay the previous debt account (Collins 136). It helped the country to achieve significant economic growth rate. Under this article of confederation, government of the United States of America introduced several public development projects. For example, government initiated Section 16. It was the designated for the development of several public schools. Northwest Ordinance is also considered as one of the key successes of the government under the articles of confederation. The government of the country planned for the establishment of governments in different territories. It helped the government of the Unite States of America to maintain discipline and sustainability in these territories (Kellogg 58). Government of the country developed several processes for these territories to become a state. It helped the government of the country to reform and improve overall economic and social condition of these territor ies. In addition to this, government of the United States of America succeeded to expand fundamental democratic rights into the Northwest region. Aspects like Freedom of speech for common people, no slavery, trial by jury and freedom of speech for press were guaranteed by the Congress. In addition to this, government of the United States of America succeeded to prepare a constitution for the country including these territories and states which approved by the Congress. Several developed laws and regulations developed by the government of states helped to maintain peace and control the social life in the newly developed states. Failures of government under the Articles of Confederation The inherent weakness in the Articles of Confederation arises from the fact that it is called a confederacy. The sovereign power was placed in the hands of the states of the America. This fact was explicitly stated in Article II of the confederation which states that each state will retain the freedom, sovereignty, independence, jurisdiction, power and right. Such distribution of power was chosen by the Founding Fathers since Americans colonist were very wary of the national governments (Feinberg 78). They have to deal with the British Crown for many years; the American colonies did not want to make another out-of-touch national government. During this short lifespan, the Articles of Confederation became ineffective at governing the growing American states. The main cause for this